How to Prevent Down syndrome via PGD/PGS?

Each year, about 120,000 babies are born with genetic abnormalities in the USA. This number is 1 in every 33 babies that leads to death of 20 percent of the newborns in their first year. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Down Syndrome is the most common birth defects in the USA with the frequency of 6037 cases a year.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder which affects the brain and body development. People suffering from this defect face physical and mental challenges all their lives. There is no permanent medication to treat this disease, so the best attempt is trying to prevent it in the early stages. We can prevent Down syndrome via PGD/PGS through the use of IVF technology. In the article “How can IVF help Prevent Genetic Diseases?”, we generally discussed about genetic diseases.

Quick Information





Duration of procedure

3-4 weeks

Hospital Stay

Zero day

Minimum Stay in Iran

3 to 4 weeks


What is Down Syndrome?


A human cell is made up of 23 pairs of chromosomes. In each pair, one chromosome comes from the father and the other one is inherited from the mother. Babies who are born with Down syndrome have one extra chromosome which interferes with their brain and body development.

Each chromosome has a number of genes which are made of the person’s DNA. Genes determines how the baby develops during pregnancy and after birth. Down syndrome happens by the abnormal cell division of the chromosome 21. These patients usually have three copies of chromosome 21 instead of having two of them.

As a result of this extra chromosome, babies who are born with down syndrome face different physical and mental challenges all through their lives. They may have a distinctive appearance that can separate them from the normal people.

IVF + Embryo Transfer

21-28 days
  • Treatment
  • Medical consultation
  • Post Treatment follow-up
  • Airport Pick up/Drop off

IVF + PGD (Sex Selection)

21-28 days
  • Treatment
  • Medical consultation
  • Post Treatment follow-up
  • Airport Pick up/Drop off

IVF + Egg donation

21-28 days
  • Treatment
  • Medical consultation
  • Post Treatment follow-up
  • Airport Pick up/Drop off

IVF + Egg Donation + PGD

21-28 days
  • Treatment
  • Medical consultation
  • Post Treatment follow-up
  • Airport Pick up/Drop off

During IVF process, sex selection is possible since there are different chromosome combinations for males and females. When the prospective parents are informed about their embryos’ health, they may be informed about the embryos’ gender as well. Females have XX chromosome pairs while males have XY chromosomes. By selecting the embryo which contains either XX or XY chromosome pairs, you can select the gender of the child.

If the screening shows that there are healthy embryos of both genders, most of the patients want to choose a gender themselves. Choosing a certain gender among the embryos is not something that can be imposed on the patients. It totally depends on their own personal choice. Usually it is all about having a balance in the family. For example, when there are already two sons in the family, the parents may want to have a girl this time. They can even decide to freeze other viable embryos for later use.

Different Types of Down Syndrome

There are three types of Down syndrome:

  • Trisomy 21:

    this is the most common type of down syndrome that happens in about 95 percent of the cases. In this type, the patient has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of having two of them. Abnormal cell division is the reason of this disorder.

  • Translocation:

    in 4 percent of the cases, translocation type of down syndrome happens. In this type, a part or a full extra chromosome of 21 attaches to another chromosome. This can happen before and during the conception.

  • Mosaicism:

    the rarest type of Down syndrome is the mosaic syndrome. It happens only in 1% of the patients. In this case, patients may have defects in some of the cells while the others may be normal. They can have extra chromosome 21 in some cells because of abnormal cell division after the fertilization.

How common is Down syndrome?

Down syndrome is the most common genetic disease in the USA. Every year in the US, about 6000 babies are born under the influence of this disease, which means one in every 700 babies.

Causes of Down Syndrome; Is it inherited?


Human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Down syndrome happens when a change occurs in chromosome 21 division. Usually there is an extra copy of chromosome 21 in all or some of the cells which causes Down syndrome.

In trisomy 21 which is the most common type of this syndrome, the disease happens randomly without being inherited. However, in the cases of translocation or mosaicism, heredity should be considered as a possible reason.

The main cause of this genetic disorder is not clear yet. People from every race can be affected. Yet, aging can be an important factor in the emergence of this genetic abnormality.

Down Syndrome Symptoms

Down syndrome can cause physical and cognitive symptoms in patients. All of these symptoms may not be found in Down syndrome cases, also the severity of the symptoms can vary in each case. Physical and behavioral symptoms of the down syndrome can be:

  • Short and stocky physics
  • Flattened facial features
  • Small ears
  • Almond-shaped eyes
  • Small feet and hands and a crease in the palm
  • Weak muscle tone
  • Speech development delay
  • Cognition delay
  • Short and long-term memory problems
  • Stubbornness and tantrums
  • Sleep difficulties
  • Attention difficulties, etc.

Life Expectancy in Down Syndrome Patients

By the advancements of medication, the life expectancy of people with Down syndrome have noticeably increased. Now the patients can live more than 60 years depending on their disease severity.

Down Syndrome Prevention


Birth defects can have physical and emotional consequences on affected children and their families. Down syndrome cannot be treated but it can be prevented in some extent. Having a healthy lifestyle is an important way of keeping the general health. Having a well-nutrient food, smoking and drinking avoidance as well as living in a healthy environment without chemical and harmful substances can be ways of improving the quality of life.

Yet, if you have worries about having a child with Down syndrome or you already have an effected child, you should consult with a genetic doctor before getting pregnant. Your genetic doctor can examine the embryos for abnormal chromosomes to select only healthy embryos for transferring into the uterus in order to prevent Down syndrome via PGD/PGS. If this is your conflict, you can consider our IVF+PGD package which offers you a precise result at a highly affordable cost.

If you need more information on this topic and want to consult, contact us NOW.

The consultant medical doctors of TebMedTourism Co. are at your service for free.

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About TebMedTourism company

TebMedTourism Company is an International healthcare facilitator based in Tehran, Iran.

We start our professional activity in medical tourism industry regarding the profound capability of Iran in both healthcare & touristic fields.

We are ready with open arms to provide desirable services to our dear patients & guests from all over the world to enjoy world-class treatment quality and highly skilled doctors in Iran.

TebMedTourism company is cooperating with more than 40 internationally certified hospitals, 140 selected local hospitals, 300 specialized medical centers, 430 doctors, 112 hotels, domestic and international airlines in Tehran, Shiraz, Mashhad, Tabriz, Qom and other cities in Iran.

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