infertility cause

Causes of Infertility

Infertility is a significant concern for many couples worldwide. The prevalence of infertility, or the proportion of couples who face challenges in conceiving, varies across countries, regions, and cultures. A deeper look into the prevalence of infertility can offer insights into the scale and distribution of this issue.
Globally, it’s estimated that about 8-12% of couples experience some form of infertility. This means that nearly 1 in every 8 to 10 couples may face difficulties in achieving pregnancy. However, these figures are averages, and actual rates can vary considerably between regions.
There’s a common misconception that infertility is predominantly a problem in developed countries, influenced perhaps by lifestyle factors or the trend of delayed childbearing. While these factors do contribute, infertility is also a significant concern in developing countries. In some developing regions, the prevalence can be even higher than the global average, possibly due to factors like infections, inadequate healthcare, or limited awareness about reproductive health. So, let’s know about causes of infertility in male and female reproductive system.

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Age-Related Prevalence of Infertility

Age plays a crucial role in fertility, especially for women. Women in their 20s and early 30s generally have the highest chances of conceiving. By the mid-30s, fertility starts to decline more rapidly, and by the age of 40, the chances of natural conception are considerably lower each month. For men, age-related decline in fertility is more gradual but can become significant by the late 40s and 50s.
The length of time a couple has been trying to conceive also influences the classification of infertility. For couples where the female partner is under 35, infertility is typically defined as the inability to conceive after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. However, for those where the female partner is over 35, the duration is shortened to six months. This differentiation acknowledges the age-related decline in fertility.

Secondary Infertility

While discussions around infertility often focus on couples who haven’t had a child, there’s another category known as secondary infertility. This refers to couples who have previously conceived but are facing challenges in having another child. Secondary infertility accounts for a significant portion of infertility cases, and its prevalence is on the rise in many parts of the world.

Underlying Factors Influencing Infertility Prevalence

It’s essential to consider that reported prevalence rates can be influenced by several factors, including:
– Awareness and Reporting: In societies where infertility is stigmatized, many couples might not seek medical help or even acknowledge the issue, leading to underreporting.
– Access to Healthcare: In regions with limited access to healthcare, many cases might go undiagnosed.
– Cultural and Societal Norms: In cultures where childbearing is highly emphasized, couples might seek assistance sooner, leading to higher reported rates.

So, prevalence of infertility is a multifaceted issue influenced by a range of biological, societal, and environmental factors. While global averages provide a general overview, understanding the nuances and regional variations is crucial for a comprehensive grasp of the scale and impact of infertility worldwide.

Causes of Female Infertility

Ovulatory Disorders

– Ovulation is a crucial step in conception where an egg is released from the ovary. Any disruption in this process leads to ovulatory disorders. The most common amongst these is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS produce higher-than-normal amounts of male hormones which results in irregular menstrual periods and can prevent eggs from maturing. Another disorder is premature ovarian insufficiency, a condition where the ovaries lose their function before the age of 40. Factors like genetics, chemotherapy, or autoimmune processes can trigger this. Hypothalamic dysfunction involves an imbalance in the brain hormones that regulate ovulation. Factors like stress, low or high body weight, or recent significant weight gain or loss can disrupt this balance.

Tubal Blockage or Damage

– The fallopian tubes are channels where the egg travels from the ovaries to the uterus. Any damage or blockage in these tubes can prevent sperm from reaching the egg or block the fertilized egg from reaching the uterus. Common causes include pelvic inflammatory disease (often due to a long-standing untreated sexual infection like chlamydia), previous surgeries in the abdomen or pelvis, or conditions like endometriosis.


– Endometriosis is a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. This abnormal growth can block the fallopian tubes or disrupt implantation. It can also affect the lining of the uterus, disrupting the implantation of the fertilized egg. The exact cause remains unclear, but it’s associated with issues like menstrual blood flow problems, immune system responses, or hormones.

Uterine Disorders

– The uterus or womb is where the baby grows. Conditions like fibroids, benign tumors in the uterus, or polyps can interfere with implantation of the fertilized egg. Furthermore, some women might be born with anomalies in the shape of their uterus, which can lead to difficulties in holding a pregnancy.

Cervical Abnormalities

– The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Abnormalities here can include cervical stenosis, a narrowing of the cervix, or an inability of the cervix to produce the best type of mucus that allows the sperm to travel through it. Procedures such as cone biopsies can also result in cervical shortening which might lead to “incompetent cervix” – a condition where the cervix opens prematurely during pregnancy, leading to a miscarriage.

Early Menopause

– Also known as premature ovarian insufficiency, this condition is characterized by the loss of normal function of your ovaries before age 40. While the exact cause is often unknown, factors like genetics, chemotherapy, or radiation treatments can play a role. Women with this condition might have irregular or occasional periods for years or might not manifest any symptoms at all.

Pelvic Adhesions

– These are bands of scar tissue that bind the internal organs after pelvic infections, appendicitis, or abdominal or pelvic surgeries. They can interfere with the function of the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

Chronic Diseases

– Conditions like diabetes or untreated celiac disease can impact a woman’s fertility. For instance, poorly controlled diabetes can lead to menstrual irregularities. Celiac disease can lead to malnutrition, disrupting menstrual cycles.

Hormonal Imbalances

– Hormonal balance is essential for various stages of the reproductive process. Conditions like thyroid problems, high prolactin levels, or adrenal disease can disrupt the delicate balance necessary for ovulation, conception, and pregnancy.

Lifestyle Factors

– Smoking accelerates egg loss and can advance the onset of menopause. Excessive alcohol can lead to ovulation disorders. Weight issues, either being significantly overweight or underweight, can disrupt menstrual cycles. Excessive physical or emotional stress results in amenorrhea or the absence of menstrual cycles.

Causes of Male Infertility


– A varicocele is a swelling of the veins that drain the testicle. This can prevent the testicle from cooling efficiently, leading to a reduced sperm count and fewer moving sperm. While the exact reason why varicoceles cause infertility is unknown, it might be related to abnormal testicular temperature regulation.

Ejaculation Disorders

– These can take various forms. Premature ejaculation is when ejaculation occurs too early. Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen enters the bladder during orgasm instead of emerging out of the tip of the penis. Certain surgeries, medications, or underlying health conditions can lead to these disorders.


– Cancers and nonmalignant tumors can directly affect the male reproductive organs. Surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiation necessary to treat these tumors can also impair sperm production, leading to infertility.

Hormonal Imbalances

– The hormones produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are crucial for sperm production. Abnormalities in other hormonal or organ systems might also lead to infertility. Conditions affecting hormone balance include pituitary tumors, congenital lack of LH/FSH (hormones stimulating the testicles), or medications and drugs.

Chromosome Defects

– Genetic disorders like Klinefelter’s syndrome cause abnormal development of the male reproductive organs. Other genetic syndromes associated with infertility include cystic fibrosis, Kallmann’s syndrome, and Kartagener’s syndrome.


– Certain medications can affect sperm production and function. These include testosterone replacement therapy, chemotherapy, certain antifungal and antibiotic medications, and anabolic steroids.

Structural Abnormalities

– These can be present from birth or develop later in life due to illnesses, injuries, or surgeries. Examples include blockage in the testicle, tubes that carry sperm, or issues in the epididymis, vas deferens, or urethra.


– Infections can interfere with sperm production or cause scarring that blocks the passage of sperm. These include inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis) or testicles (orchitis) and some STIs, including gonorrhea or HIV.

Environmental Factors

– Overexposure to certain environmental factors can reduce sperm production or function. These include industrial chemicals, heavy metals, radiation, or X-rays. Extended exposure to heat, like in saunas or hot tubs, might elevate core body temperature and impair sperm production.

Lifestyle Factors

– Illicit drug use can decrease the number and quality of sperm. Alcohol can lower testosterone levels, cause erectile dysfunction and decrease sperm production. Tobacco smoking might lower sperm count. Emotional stress can interfere with hormones needed to produce sperm. Obesity can cause hormone changes that reduce male fertility.

In both male and female cases, it’s essential to remember that individual factors can vary, and seeing a specialist is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of one’s fertility status.

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