Nearly 15 to 20 percent of couples are suffering from infertility all around the world. Meanwhile, using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is getting more common. Some of these technologies are egg donation, sperm donation, and embryo donation. These days, “egg donation” or “ovum donation” is an extremely acceptable infertility treatment technique in Western countries; however, because of ethical issues using donor eggs is debatable in many countries. One could even ask, “Is it haram to donate eggs?”
In this paper, we particularly focus on egg donation in Islam as it is a controversial subject among people, and discuss the Islamic point of view on using donor eggs to have offspring. Egg donation in Shia and egg donation in Sunni are two main subjects that are going to be discussed in this article. Is donor egg allowed in Islam? Continue reading to learn more.
Duration of procedure
Minimum Stay in Iran
3 to 4 weeks
Is Donating Eggs Haram?
Egg donation is a medical procedure in which a woman donates her eggs to another woman who is unable to conceive due to infertility or other medical reasons. Through the IVF process, the donated eggs are fertilized in a laboratory with sperm from the intended father or a sperm donor, and the resulting embryo is implanted in the recipient’s uterus. IVF in Islam is considered permissible since there is no adultery involved and the husband’s sperm and the wife’s eggs are making the embryos but outside the body in a laboratory environment. The process should also be done with the intention of having children and not for any other purpose. But is egg donation halal or haram?
The answer to this question depends on one’s religious beliefs and the interpretation of religious teachings. In Islam, there is a debate among scholars regarding egg donation. Some scholars consider it permissible (halal) under certain conditions, while others consider it prohibited (haram). Therefore, as a Muslim, egg donation process could be a confusing subject.
Those who view egg donation in Islam as permissible may argue that egg donation is a form of medical intervention to assist with infertility, as long as it does not involve any harm or exploitation of the donor or the child that may be born from the donated egg. In addition, they may argue that the resulting child should be considered the legitimate child of the receiving couple and not the donor.
This group believe that it is a permissible form of medical intervention to help couples overcome infertility, which is recognized as a legitimate medical condition in Islam. They also emphasize the importance of the principle of maqasid al-shariah, which is the protection of human life, dignity, and well-being. Adherent of this method claim that egg donation in Islam can help to fulfill this principle by enabling infertile couples to have children and experience the joys of parenthood.
However, scholars who are against egg donation argue that it is not permissible as it involves the use of a third party, which can create legal and moral complications. They may also argue that it goes against the Islamic principle of lineage and the importance of the biological connection between parents and children.
It is important to note that the issue of egg donation in Islam is a controversial one and there is no definite consensus among Islamic scholars. Therefore, it is advisable to consult with a trusted scholar who is well-versed in Islamic law and medical ethics to obtain a more informed opinion.
Islamic Attitude Towards Egg Donation
Muslims constitute approximately 1.9 billion or %24 of the world’s population. One of the main concerns of Muslims in using assisted reproductive technologies is Islam’s attitude toward this subject and if egg donation is halal or haram. Egg donation is a relatively new medical technology that raises many ethical and religious questions. There is no religious limitation for an infertile married couple to pursue their needed fertility treatments. However, gametes donation is still a controversial topic in Islam religion.
There are some differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims’ beliefs on this issue. While some of the Sunni scholars (not all) ban the use of a third party in the reproductive structure, the gamete rules in the Shia school of thought are more flexible and it is considered halal. However, there are still serious debates especially about sperm donation.
Learn more :All about gender selection in Islam
Egg Donation in Islam Sunni
In Sunni Islam, the permissibility of egg donation is a matter of debate among Islamic scholars. However, among the Sunni scholars, there is no consensus on the matter.
In the Sunni school of thought, there are two opinions about the egg donation possibility. One group of scholars believe that use of egg donation is not halal and religiously not allowed. The other group mention that egg donation could be halal under some conditions. If the man marries the egg donor even as a temporary marriage named as “Nikah mut’ah”, then the use of donor eggs is possible.
They believe that there is nothing wrong with performing fertility treatments such as IVF and sperm and egg retrieval, but there must be strict control to make sure these gametes belong to a couple who are legally husband and wife. If this is the case, it will be considered Halal (allowed). But any combination of the gametes belonging to a man and woman who are not married is considered Haram (forbidden) and it would be compared to adultery. This is because they argue that the woman is carrying a fertilized egg of somebody who is not her legal husband.
Also in the case of egg donation, this group of scholars argue that since the egg donor is the biological mother of the child, there can be a high risk of emotional conflicts between her and the birth mother. Any other situation outside of a marriage relationship is also Haram, for instance, fertilization of any frozen sperm after a couple’s divorce or death of the husband would be extremely forbidden. As a result, in Sunni-majority countries, any third-party donation and any fertilization outside the marital condition is banned. However, the advent of egg donation and surrogacy caused some religious authorities to allow these procedures between co-wives.
Some scholars argue that egg donation in Islam Sunni is permissible if the egg is taken from a married woman with the consent of her husband and is fertilized by her husband’s sperm. This is because the child born from this arrangement would still be considered the offspring of the couple. Some other scholars discuss that egg donation in Islam Sunni is not permissible as it involves the use of a third party, which can potentially lead to confusion over lineage and inheritance issues. They argue that this violates the Islamic principle of protecting family lineage and the rights of inheritors.
Overall, there are many Sunni scholars who have accepted the permissibility of egg donation but some others do not have a positive attitude towards this method due to the reasons that have been mentioned. Therefore, it is advisable to consult with a trusted Islamic scholar to obtain a more informed opinion.
Egg Donation in Islam Shia
Egg donation is Islam Shia is considered Halal and there is a consensus over this topic. There are few religious jurists who have the same attitude toward third-party donations just like Sunni jurists. However, in 1999, Ayatollah Khamenei the leader of Iran declared that surrogacy and egg or embryo donations are allowed under certain terms. “Transferring the fetus to the uterus of the woman is not banned in any case, but touching and looking at the Haram must be avoided”, he ruled.
With the fatwas of some of the greatest Shia scholars like Ayatollah Khamenei and Ayatollah Sistani, egg donation in Islam Shia is allowed and Halal. Embryo donation is also Halal because the embryo comes from a married couple, and it will be offered to another married couple and it does not contain any sexual act to be called adultery.
Those who consider egg donation in Islam Shia to be halal argue that it falls under the category of permissible forms of medical treatment or intervention that are allowed to preserve or improve health. They also argue that egg donation is a form of charity or sadaqah and that donating one’s eggs to help others who are unable to conceive is a noble and virtuous act.
It is important to know that in Shia, the word “adultery” is referred to as sexual and physical contact, and transferring the gamete cannot be considered adultery while in Sunni attitude there is a strict view towards this issue. From Shia’s point of view, adultery is despicable because it can make the family structure fall apart, while egg donation and embryo donation can save the family and the dignity of the couple, which is an important purpose of Sharia.
If we summarize the reasons for permissibility of egg donation in the Shia’s point of view, it would be like:
- It doesn’t include a physical act and sexual intercourse; therefore, it is not considered adultery.
- Egg donation is not a medical intervention and it is allowed for treating the fertility issues.
- It can be considered as a charity or sadaqah and is a noble act.
- Egg donation can save the family and the dignity of the couple, which is an important purpose of Sharia.
In conclusion, it is fair to say that reproductive technologies are becoming more popular all around the world, as well as in Islamic countries. It should be noted that for an infertile couple who is facing difficulties due to childlessness, there is no religious barrier for perusing the fertility treatment. The Islamic authorities have welcomed the new treatment technologies and are reconfiguring them in accordance with their own local religious moralities. There are even many Sunni couples who have used donor eggs even though Islam can have its different forms as was discussed in this article.
Iran as a Shia-majority country is the only Muslim country for undergoing infertility treatments like surrogacy and egg donation legally (you can also read about surrogacy in Islam). These procedures are completely supported by the laws of the country and religious authorities. Our professional experts at TebMedTourism Co. are here to host you in beautiful Iran and be with you all through the way till you hold your baby in your arms.
If you need more information on this topic and want to consult, contact us NOW.
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For achieving more information about sperm donation in Islam click here…
What does Quran Say about Egg Donation?
The Quran, the holy book of Islam, does not specifically mention egg donation. However, Islamic scholars have discussed the topic of egg donation and its permissibility within the framework of Islamic ethics.
According to Islamic bioethics, egg donation is considered permissible as long as it does not violate any of the basic Islamic principles, such as the prohibition of adultery or incest. It is also important to ensure that the process of egg donation is carried out with the consent of all parties involved, including the donor and recipient.
Furthermore, it is important to ensure that the use of donated eggs is for a lawful purpose, such as to help an infertile couple conceive a child through a medically assisted reproductive technology. In summary, while the Quran does not explicitly address egg donation, Islamic scholars generally consider it permissible as long as it is carried out in a manner that is consistent with Islamic principles and ethics.
Is it Halal to Freeze Eggs?
One of the important questions on the subject of egg donation is “Is Egg Freezing Haram in Islam?”
Dar Al-Ifta has announced that the egg-freezing process is “permissible, and there is no Islamic prohibition of it if it is carried out under four conditions.” The four conditions are described below:
- Eggs must be fertilized by the sperms of the husband while the couple is married, and not after the marriage is over, such as in cases of divorce, or death.
- Fertilized eggs must be kept completely safe and under strict control, preventing intentional or inadvertent mixing with other preserved eggs.
- A fertilized egg must not be placed inside the womb of a woman who did not originally produce the egg, and eggs may not be donated.
- Egg freezing must not pose negative side effects on the fetus due to the impact of the various factors that they may be exposed to during the process, such as those that could induce birth defects or mental retardation later.
By the process of freezing eggs, a woman can preserve her eggs outside of her body so that she could be able to get pregnant in the future without stressing about her fertility ability in older ages. So in this case, she could have her fertilized eggs re-inserted in her uterus for growing into pregnancy at the appropriate time.
Why is Egg Donation Haram?
Egg donation in Islam Shia is considered halal as it is only for fertility treatment and keeping the structure of the family. They argue that having a child through egg donation is allowed for medical reasons to help infertile couples conceive when not having a child raises difficulties in the family. On the other hand, some of the Sunni scholars believe that it is not permissible because it involves the use of a third party in the process of reproduction, which could lead to issues of lineage and inheritance. Therefore, it is important to consult with a qualified Islamic scholar for specific guidance on this issue.
Have You Ever Wanted a Muslim Egg Donor?
If you are Muslim or having a Muslim egg donor is important to you, then you have definitely thought about finding a country where you could have the option of finding a proper Muslim donor according to your factors. Iran, as the only Muslim country that legally practices egg donation, is your best destination for finding a Muslim egg donor. Our consultants are ready to answer all of your questions regarding the process of egg donation in Iran, in addition to your non-medical questions. TebMedTourism’s gynecologists will evaluate all your medical reports without a waiting list and free of charge. For more information, you can contact us now on WhatsApp and ask all of your questions.