A contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy for another couple is referred to as a surrogacy. Numerous infertile couples travel to IRAN, where commercial surrogacy is permitted, from all over the world.
Even if it looks that everyone involved will benefit from this arrangement, there are some sensitive problems that must be handled through answering surrogacy ethical questions and considering carefully crafted laws in order to protect the surrogate mother and the intended parents’ rights.
Is Surrogacy acceptable ethically? The answer to this question is embedded in the contract. An ethical agreement will answer all surrogacy ethical dilemmas; a precise proposal and proper foresight could help you avoid any dilemma as a surrogate or intended parent.
Stay with us! In this article, we share our valuable experiences in this field!
The word surrogacy refers to a substitute or stand-in for another. But the meaning this article speaks about, is surrogacy as a medical procedure and we have many type of surrogacy . surrogacy is an arrangement between some people(two or three or more) for having a child. A woman agrees to carry and gives birth to a newborn who belong to intended parents under special circumstances depending on their agreements.
First legal surrogacy agreement has set in 1976 in USA. Legal surrogacy is not that old.With progressing infertility treatments periodically, creative new ways come to medical space. Every way has its own pros and cons.People decide based on their financial, psychological and emotional state. One of these ways is surrogacy.
There are arguments that support and oppose surrogacy.
Some defend surrogacy as useful way for treatment of infertility and some were against with different reasons. Like any other infertility treatment, surrogacy has its own pros and cons.This topic mainly discusses in bioethics but not excluded in bioethics. Gender studies, politics, economic and sociology also participate.
Due to almost short history of surrogacy there is limited data and research that shows why women take part as surrogates but an obvious possibilty is economic gain. Although some other reasons such as the enjoyment of pregnancy can motivate as well.
What ethical concerns may arise from surrogacy?
Do you mind Surrogacy ethical issues, or do you say we can handle it via agencies as a surrogate or as intended parents? Using agencies for welcoming newborn children via surrogacy is very intelligent, but you should know that medical professional agencies similar TebMedTourism will confront what challenges? What kind of contracts in the surrogacy procedure is essential, and how can contract items prevent ethical issues surrounding surrogacy?
After analyzing the passages of contract agencies, you will make the best decision. You can be sure that none of the following ethical issues will happen for you as a surrogate or intended parent! But before choosing, carefully read the contracts and then make a decision!
Surrogacy ethical issues
- Surrogacy jeopardize natural fertility!
This item is one of the most important ethical issues because “natural reproduction” methods are not utilized in surrogate maternity; there are some general objections to the practice.
The surrogate pregnancy is carried out using either the artificial methods: IVF or artificial insemination. All of these methods sacrifice the body’s reproductive organs.
Church uses this justification to argue that surrogate maternity should be outlawed. Since surrogacy is not a natural kind of pregnancy, it harms both parties involved.
Although surrogate maternity is considered a service provided to a couple that wants a child, it actually involves complex social and psychological conflicts.
According to the opponents of surrogacy, ignoring all of these considerations and viewing the surrogate pregnancy only from the perspective of having a child or viewing it as a form of devotion reveals a very limited point of view.
In addition to a variety of other elements, they say, another factor influencing the alteration of the human being’s natural reproductive process is the paid “pregnancy” service, which devalues societal and personal values.
If you disagree with this item, go ahead!
- Surrogacy is a kind female body sold!
Do women’s bodies get sold? Contrarian views on surrogate maternity claim that it entails “selling the female body.” In the literature, surrogacy is linked to prostitution since it is said that women who participate in it sell their uteruses and relinquish control over their own bodies.
The surrogate mother’s direct connection to the agencies would make it easier for her to participate in such endeavors. The desire for money influences a woman’s decision to become pregnant, consent to having her body used for procreation, and be able to pay for any problems or discomfort that may arise.
This is why there is concern that women may eventually become “baby machines.”
In an interview with 19 surrogate mothers, 11 women stated that money was their primary motivation for being a surrogate mother, but seven other reasons were also present.
But on the other hand, the surrogate can resolve her issues by accepting the money. Can change her life and make new experiences in the material world!
- Considering surrogate mothers as breeding boxes!
It is alleged that surrogacy reduces the female body to the status of a reproductive tool; ‘’Breeding Boxes”.
The woman begins to view herself as a “reproductive tool” as a result of the surrogate pregnancy. In a study, the surrogate mothers were asked about their feeling in front of the baby they carry.
They responded in a normal manner, for example, “I have never imagined that it is my baby.” and “I only carry it; it is not my child.”? Does the surrogate mother become a nesting container?”
How Proponents of this theory could be in charge in front of real mothers that experience natural pregnancy! Do all mothers in the world are breeding box? This is not make sense!
- The female body is treated medically!
Although pregnancy is a natural process, nobody can say it is risk-free. The chance of death from physical abnormalities and problems (such as those affecting the heart, lungs, kidneys, neurological system, and excretory system) brought on by or made worse by pregnancy is 1 in 4800.
However, it was found in a different study that some surrogate mothers went through complicated pregnancies and dealt with various health issues due to the abortions brought on by ectopic pregnancy in this situation.
Although such hazards are likely to present for a pregnant woman, it is essential to remember that surrogate moms also face similar risks to others.
- Surrogating mother and losing her autonomy?
Although a surrogate mother is free and conscious, there is always a chance that she will feel guilty for carrying and giving birth to a child who is not her own. In a study of US, it was shown that 32% of the surrogate mothers experienced some mental and emotional disorders.
The autonomy of a regretful mother would undoubtedly change. These changes will be limited by a choice that was thought to have been made intentionally. It is important to prevent the woman from making judgments that could cause her problems in the future.
Additionally, it is suggested that the surrogate mother is not completely aware of the arguments made and that only desperate and impoverished women would dare to engage in such a process.
It is without a doubt a paternalistic tactic to shield the potential surrogate moms from losing their autonomy. It is believed that banning surrogate pregnancies would enable prevention of any potential connected issues.
- Refusing the surrogate mother from giving back the baby to the intended parents!
Psychodynamically, a surrogate mother’s postpartum separation from the newborn would cause a grief response. In some situations, the surrogate mother may become emotionally attached to the child throughout and even after the pregnancy and refuse to take the child away.
As a result, it is crucial to plan and provide emotional support to both parties before and during the negotiation process.
Opponents of surrogate motherhood and surrogacy contracts contend that these procedures turn children into marketable commodities that can be bought and sold.
Proponents and opponents
While proponents of surrogacy can be found in many different social groups, opponents are mostly devided in a few categories: Opponents with religious beliefs, some Feminists and left-leaning activists.
Ethics has not a stable state to define everything with a solid approach. It changes time by time, depending on society needs, technology and peolpe mindsets on a special topic. Surrogacy is not an exception.Why prevent Couples from reaching their desire to be parents? Isn‘t it immoral to prevent people from their natrual need?
Another argument comes from proponents is that untill the process is made by fully consent of all parties involved, there is no problem.Some opponents protest against using women’s body as commercial means. Applying laws or strict instructions following by rule can prevent that. They say it can be used as a job for low-income women. On the other hand, pros say preventing that is not that hard.
Both opponents and proponents share the same idea that a threatening danger is becoming a business running by companies.In a business based on selling children, both child’s and surrogate’s health might be in serious danger.
In a normal surrogacy process sometimes even intended parents communicate with the child in pregnancy. They take surrogate under consideration on different things, public health, nutrition status, being in a peaceful atmosphere and so on. A baby-selling business is not acceptable in any sense.
Some countries such as Australia have solved this problem by a simple way: Only altruistic surrogacy is legal. Commercial surrogacy is illegal in all states in Australia.
In altruistic surrogacy surrogate doesn’t receive any money or economic benefit (as the name says!). But intended parents have to cover all surrogate’s expenses in relation to surrogacy, pregnancy and birth.
fortunately, or unfortunately religion and ethics still shares a close link. They have huge impacts on each other. Christian beliefs largely glorifying family and marriage institution show a slight disagree to these ways of developing family. Children born outside of marriage regardless of the circumstances may consider illegal.
From an ethics point of view, matters of importance are rights of parties involved. The rights of the child are almost never considered. The commercialism of surrogacy raises fears of a black market and baby selling.
Another concern is about the rights of surrogate. The surrogate herself typically is paid $20,000 to $25,000 in the U.S, which averages approximately $3.00 per hour. Bodily works usually come at an upper state of payment due to hardship and consequences. Commercial surrogacy most often lacks proper payment.
Ethical concerns about fundamental freedoms, autonomy and informed consent are shared across countries.
Negative factors come in both aspects of religious and ethical. Overall there is an arguement against infertility treatment most believed by very religios people. They believe it comes against God’s will and Interfers in nature.
Besides that surrogacy looks like have a big issue with procreative aspects of marriage. Because It disputes the traditional way of having children through marriage. As well as traditional family structure made by a man, woman and their biological child.
In a conservative structure opposition goes as far as it that says surrogacy offends the right of the child to be brought into the world by the same parents who are going to take care and rear the child. Here the issue of children’s rights is raised.Alternatives such as adoption may not be satisfying for genetic continuity.
Surrogacy and prostituion
What’s more, stubborn opponents have interpreted surrogacy as a form of prostitution due to similarities.
In both a woman’s body turns into the means of earning. In both a human act turns into a product and be sold. With the difference that surrogacy relates to birth, one of the most sacred things in religious mindset!
As an answer to these claims sometimes “the right to have children” has to refer and use as a justification for surrogacy and other vitro reproductive ways and technologies.
A crucial part of this topic related to surrogate. She must not accept to that by obligation or under pressure. Pregnancy is a hard period even for whom getting pregnant normally. She should choose this voluntarily and not endangers her health.
Surrogacy, ethical or unethical ?
Proponents believe that In an era respecting freedom and human wisdom this decision is only concerned parents-to-be and the surrogate. Other forms of intervention is not acceptable. Specifically goverment intervention breaking privacy and freedom of choice.
It also provokes gender-related and inequality concerns. From a special point of view reproducting gender-based labour is not acceptable in modern societies.But on the other hand comes the argument that glorifies being parents, whether biologically whether not.
ethics of surrogacy pros and cons
Comments of opponents and advocates
According to surrogacy opponents, it should be prohibited because to the possible medical, psychological, and symbolic hazards it poses to the kid. When the child learns how it was born, it could also experience psychological harm.
The surrogacy advocates, on the other hand, assert that a precise surrogacy contract that covers all aspects of the surrogacy journey, can turn any surrogacy ethical issues to opportunity! A good contract is including the appropriate compensation to surrogate, expectations and responsibilities for intended parents and surrogates in surrogacy journey, considering sensitive issues like termination and selective reduction, risk factors and liabilities for both parties and more.
you cannot do on your own, you should go through this way by an experienced agency. TebMedTourism as a professional agency in medical tourism and surrogacy will address all of the issues that must be addressed.
TebMedTourism more precisely define its surrogacy proposals. This extremely cover a wide range of topics, including payment to the surrogate mother, use of intermediaries in surrogate arrangements, enforceability of such arrangements and no disclosure of the identity of the surrogate mother.
In order to prevent injustice to the surrogate child, the surrogacy agreement should also cover the surrogate child’s financial needs in the event that the commissioning couple passes away before the child is born, the intended parents’ divorce, or none of them decide to accept the child after it is born.
In order to prevent any legal issues, the intended parents’ names should appear on the baby’s birth certificate and the surrogate mother should not have any parental rights over the kid.
The great outcomes are examined in light of numerous anthropological and psychological variables.
As a conclusion it can be said that surrogacy is a difficult issue beset with many ethical, social, and legal issues. But surrogacy with considerations is ethical or at least not immoral.World goes in a way that more and more accepts and respects personal freedoms, people’s choices in many different levels. For instance, form a family or choices for social life.
In such a world, a couple’s choice to have a baby by surrogacy for any reason (either biologically infertility or disease prohibiting pregnancy or personal reasons) is not immoral.The main part of parenting starts just after birth! In 21st century force people to be biological parents or put aside parenting does not make sense.
why surrogacy in Iran?
Iran is known as one of the countries which is the pioneer of Infertility Treatments and surrogacy in Iran is best just because you save both time and money.
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