International surrogacy arrangements

International surrogacy arrangements

Nowadays, we are witnessing more infertile parents who are interested in doing surrogacy in order to have a baby. Most of them try to make this journey overseas, especially in developing countries for a wide variety of reasons such as the cost of procedure which is quite inexpensive, visiting another country etc. in this regard it should be noted that Iran is the cheapest country for surrogacy and one of the best destinations for infertile parents. When parents travel to other countries for surrogacy, it is known as International surrogacy. If you are the sort of parents who want to do surrogacy, make sure you are aware of Surrogacy arrangements. This is the most vital procedure that should be taken into account.

Surrogacy is the most controversial infertility treatment in the world, especially when it comes to ethical concerns and legislation. The surrogacy procedure carries place through a designated fertility clinic. Due to the fact that it can raise questions about ethical issues, this procedure is regarded as an illegal act in many countries or is legal under some circumstances. For instance, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden banned all types of surrogacy, not only commercial but also altruistic ones. On the other hand, Greece and the UK allow altruistic surrogacy. Some countries have minimal legislation.

Types of surrogacy arrangements

Surrogacy is a journey through which somebody called a surrogate mother carries the child for the intended parents. There are two surrogacy arrangements based on what you want to do.

Commercial surrogacy

In Commercial surrogacy, the surrogate mother is paid by the intended parents in order to give birth to the child. It is crucial to say that payment is not limited to medical expenses or delivery.

Compassionate or altruistic arrangement

In this kind of surrogacy, the surrogate is known to the altruistic parent, and an arrangement is between the intended parents and the surrogate without any profit.


Complexities with international surrogacy arrangements

Apart from ethical and legal problems, while international surrogacy arrangements are developing, a significant number of issues show up. Private international law and fundamental rights considered vital in human lives are part of that issues. These issues include the determination of parentage, the child’s rights, nationality, the right to family life, the merchandising of the human body, and the commodification of the child.

For most people finding out about legal acts and the medical system in other countries is not an easy task. While commercial surrogacy is legal in some countries, they usually have weak legislative and regulatory frameworks. So, it can be confusing for intended parents. It is good to know as intended parents, you are in charge of any costs and expenses, even for unexpected medical treatments like premature birth, miscarriage and other medical problems related to pregnancy with the surrogate.

Intended parents should consider that every country has special legislation regarding getting out of that country. So before choosing a target country, talk with some experts about Legal countries for surrogacy. Other social risks are regarded as critical issues. There is a possible chance that these acts are illegal in some countries’ exploitation and trafficking of women for surrogacy. On top of that, the rights of children born through surrogacy might not be met. For example, in some countries, these children do not have a passport or travel documentations. As a result, they are not able to go to their own country. Alternatively, their nationality is not appropriately registered and causes many problems. Parents must ensure the target country obeys the laws and requirements of the foreigner where they intend to commission surrogacy. It can include the documents for entering and getting out of country.


Why overseas surrogacy arrangements are very important?

Due to the fact that the surrogacy process is illegal in many countries, people have a tendency toward going abroad for this procedure. On top of that, in some countries, surrogacy is heavily regulated, and it is not easy to do that. Commercial surrogacy agencies are not legal in these countries.

That’s why Intended parents choose to go to other countries where there is more chance to be parents through surrogacy journey, and local laws are more favorable. However, other challenges exist with overseas surrogacy arrangements, such as immigration and international laws.


The surrogacy arrangements

A comprehensive surrogacy arrangement covers all eventualities and decision-making events, including:

  • conception arrangements
  • pregnancy arrangements
  • birth arrangements
  • post-birth arrangements
  • Miscarriage
  • fatal reduction
  • Decisions to terminate and medical problems
  • The absence of intended parents when the baby is born
  • post-surrogacy contact
  • information, expenses
  • Payments and costs.

Considering the fact that these processes would be overwhelmingly complicated and hard to understand, it is strongly advised to do it with the recommendation of professionals.

Some information to know for intended parents

Some intended parents are confused and unaware of what they should do to sign an agreement. In this part, we want to enlighten them about it. The intended parents must look carefully at the laws in the target country; is surrogacy legal in that country? If it is, are foreigners allowed to do this process there? What are the conditions, and who can sign the surrogacy arrangements? The other important question will come up is the enforceability of surrogacy arrangements. Who is the legal parent, and what about the baby’s nationality? What is the cost of the process in another country? Is the target country responsible for the travel documents of the baby?

If you are interested to do surrogacy in Iran, we have good news. All of these questions have perfect answer in Iran. Needless to say, surrogacy is completely legal in Iran and every matter is clear in surrogacy arrangement.

Who is the legal parent?

Who is the legal parent

When surrogacy is done in countries where this procedure is legal, a birth certificate will usually be issued with the intended parents’ names as legal and biological parents. However, some other activities should be taken into account. For example, intended parents should be aware of their country’s laws.

Legal mother

Due to the law, the baby’s mother is someone who gives birth no matter who the mother is genetical. So in the surrogacy arrangements should be mentioned who the biological mother is and the baby’s certificate should be issued in the mother’s name, not the surrogate.

The legal father

According to the law of countries, the father is the husband of the person who gives birth to a child. If the surrogate is married, her husband would be the father, and if she is unmarried, the genetic father plays an important role. As long as the father’s name is in surrogacy arrangements, there are no difficulties in this matter.

Who can become a parent through surrogacy?

Surrogacy journeys in other countries have a lot of difficulties and issues. It raised some questions which should be answered before doing this procedure. Some of these questions are: Who would be a surrogate mother? Is it approved surrogacy by single persons or homosexuals in the target country? Should the couple be married? What about single parents? Does the target country approve of a genetic connection between the child and parents? Is the intended parent’s age important? Is it approved that intended parents go through a surrogacy journey without medical approval, which shows they are infertile? Having another child in the family Is essential? How many times are intended parents supposed to travel to the target country? What about accommodations for intended parents in the target country? Is it necessary that intended parents bring criminal records?

Apart from these questions, the surrogacy process is not limited to the intended parents; the process of choosing a surrogate mother is vital as well. Even for payments, there are a lot of rules and legislation. In some countries paying money is considered illegal.

How will you bring a child into your country?


How will you bring a child into your country

If you are willing to bring a child was born through a surrogacy journey to your country, you should know that there are some rules you should obey. Every country has its own rule regarding babies. You should have some documents that show the baby is yours and it’s not stolen. They might want to check some processes and ask questions. A mounting number of people are stealing babies or buying them from other countries, especially developing countries. Government should be assured that your baby is not one of them. So, these processes are not insulting. In some countries, parents should go to court to answer some questions. Because of these processes, signing great and comprehensive surrogacy arrangements is necessary.


As far as costs are concerned, the costs of surrogacy vary from one country to another. On the whole, payment may include surrogate expenses, medical expenses, egg transfer, IVF, egg donation, and legal affairs. Surrogacy in other countries will often charge large amounts to ease a surrogacy arrangement. Intended parents should consider all the costs before entering this road. These costs should be listed in an international surrogacy arrangement.

We divided these costs into some categories. Keep in mind that all these expenses are not necessarily needed, but it is better to be aware of them. The intended parents have to ensure that they are able to cover these costs, including unexpected ones.

Legal advice

Because the surrogacy journey is quite complicated, it is highly recommended that intended parents have a legal adviser and be aware of all the lows of this process. Moreover, legal advice can help them not to pay much money when it’s not necessary.

Surrogate’s fees and expenses

Surrogate mothers should be paid for carrying a child in commercial surrogacy. And it’s different from medical expenses and delivery costs. But the payment to a surrogate might be different from one country to another. So, intended parents should search for a better location for finding a surrogate.

Egg and sperm donation

Some intended parents need sperm or egg donation, and this process’s cost would be very high because these procedures should be done professionally.

Medical expenses

Doing the fertility process in a fertility clinic is a requirement for surrogacy and involves money. These costs will often be astronomical, particularly if multiple attempts at fertility treatment are required. Besides, other medical expenses usually arise. For example, the cost relating to pre-natal care, as well as hospital fees for the delivery and other expense related to the baby or unexpected problems during pregnancy. In some cases, medical care is needed after birth for a child. For instance, prematurely born or medical issues with immediate treatment. Some of these can be very expensive.


Surrogacy insurance is another issue related to this journey. Intended parents should know that doing surrogacy in another country will not be covered by insurance companies. Of course, they can have medical insurance for the surrogate and baby when they are born.

Visas and accommodation

Although surrogacy in other countries has many advantages, some drawbacks exist. For instance, it is required much travel to the target country in order to do IVF or other processes. So visa and accommodation are critical and should be considered by intended parents. The agency you work with can guide you. These materials can be included in a Surrogacy arrangement as well as other factors.

Transfer of parenthood

This process is a bit tricky and different from one country to another. Intended parents should think about it before the baby is born. It is crucial to think about what nationality the child will have when they are born. Likewise, the intended parents should research in advance what travel documents may be needed for the child to exit the country of birth and travel to where the intended parents live.

Challenges After the birth

Nobody can deny the fact that a surrogate mother might change her mind about giving the baby to the intended parents because she is detached from the baby. So, it can ruin the whole process; people should think about it in advance. Through a surrogacy arrangement, this possible problem will be carefully eliminated. A few surrogates may want to resist, but a majority of them are aware that they can’t do such things, and the arrangement does not allow them.

Using an agency

Since the procedure is complicated and time-consuming, it is a wise act to undertake an international surrogacy arrangement by working with a surrogacy agency. The performance and services differ in agencies, and it is parent’s responsibility to seek the best agencies. That’s why many intended parents are interested in doing this process with agencies. Before that, parents should search for legal agencies in this regard; otherwise, they might end up working with inexperienced companies and be engaged in an illegal act. They also can talk to other parents who went through this process before and read the review about doing these procedures.

There are a lot of questions that intended parents should ask, and agencies should have great answers. These questions are: what are the costs included? How much money should be paid separately? What is a fixed fee? If egg or sperm donation is needed, how much money should be paid extra? How much money is for a surrogate mother? What kind of agreement is available for a surrogate? If pregnancy does not go well, what should intended parents do? What about abortion law? Has the agency an egg or sperm donor if needed? Can parents transfer their frozen embryos to the target country? What is the success rate of the clinic? What about the process of choosing a surrogate? Has she been checked?


Surrogacy arrangements in Iran


Surrogacy arrangements in Iran

Iran is one of the leading countries in the surrogacy processes, and every year, many people from different countries come to Iran in order to make a surrogacy journey. TebMedTourism is one of the companies working in this field for many years. This company provides completely legal surrogacy arrangements for intended parents and surrogate mothers. All required items are fully included in the arrangement. So, there is no problem through your journey. Intended parents from all countries would be accepted, and people from all over the world could come to Iran for surrogacy. There are no restrictions. It should be noted that according to the laws of Iran, only married couples are accepted, and it is not possible to provide services to other individuals like single parents and unmarried couples.


Surrogacy arrangements in TebMedTourism Co.

This process in Iran is not time-consuming. Intended parents only need to stay in Iran 21 days for IVF and egg donation, and if none of these procedures are needed, they only need to stay in Iran for less than 7 days. Parents are allowed to return to Iran one week after the birth of the baby to pick up the baby. After the baby was born in Iran, a birth certificate will be issued in the name of the biological parents, and there will be no name of the surrogate mother. Furthermore, all these actions are done in less than a week. The nationality of the baby will be the same as the birth parents. Issuing a visa and passport for the baby depends on the parent’s country, and in case of cooperation, the child’s passport will be prepared in the shortest possible time. After that, the parents can transfer the child to their own country.

Regarding the payment terms, it should be noted that 50% of the cost is received before surrogacy, and the rest must be paid after the baby’s birth. The arrangement also states all the necessary things, including what to do if the pregnancy does not go well and if abortion is needed.

The surrogacy journey is not as easy as it might be seen. It is emotionally demanding, and intended parents should have support when doing this process. Our colleagues in TebMedTourism are ready to answer all the questions of parents and guide them to make the best decision if they need any guidance.

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Frequently asked questions



Which country has the best surrogacy laws?

Unfortunately, surrogacy is considered illegal in many countries around the world. Nevertheless, in Legal countries for surrogacy like Iran and the USA, there is no hard and fast rule for surrogacy. People, regardless of their nationality, can enter Iran and work with agencies in this regard.


Why do people use surrogates in other countries?

There are many reasons behind this matter. While some parents are not allowed to have babies through surrogacy, others seek the cheapest country for surrogacy because money matters.

Author:Negar Rafiei 

This article has been approved by the TebMedTourism medical team (Dr. Bazazi and & Dr. Mohammadzadeh).

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